The Indian Market can be broadly classified under the following heads :
The huge geographical amount of India and her huge population is appropriately complemented by the size of her market. The broadest categorization of the Indian Market can be made in terms of the commodity market and the bond market. Here we deal with the former in a little detail. The commodity market in India comprises of all palpable markets that we come across in our daily lives. Such markets are social institutions that facilitate exchange of goods for money. The cost of goods is estimated in terms of domestic currency. Indian Commodity Market can be subdivided into the following two categories :
The Indian labor market can be categorized into three sectors :
Two-third of India’s labor force is working in agriculture and rural industries. One-third of rural households are agricultural labor households, subsisting on wage employment. Only about 9 percent of the total workforce is in the prearranged sector; the remaining 91 percent are in the unorganized sector, self-employed and employed as casual wage laborers. The labor force in year 2006 has grown up to 509.3 million out of which 60% are in agriculture 12% are employed in industries and the remaining 28% are in services.
Self-employed are most heavily associated to labor market because of the possibilities of work-sharing and work spreading in a self-employed enterprise. Non-contractual casual laborers have the closest connection to labor market on almost day-to day basis. Same is the case with those unemployed who are aggressively looking for work. Contractual and therefore steady hired employment (with the same employer and/or in the same job) on a normal basis is enclosed in the description wage and salary workers. Persons who are occupied in their own farm or non- farm enterprises are defined as self employed. The employees in an enterprise can be either regular salaried/ wage employees or casual wage employees who are normally engaged on a day today basis. The casual wage workers both in public work and other types of work don’t have any job safety or social security. These workers moreover in formal or informal sector or in private households are informal workers. The regular salaried/wage workers are those working in others farm or non- farm enterprises and receiving in return salary or wages on a normal basis and not on the basis of daily or periodic renewal of work contract. This category includes those receiving time wage as well as those receiving piece wage or salary and paid apprentices both full time and part time. This group of persons may therefore include persons occupied regularly on an hourly basis temporary workers out- workers etc. The table known below classifies labor force across male-female and rural-urban dimensions. It is clear that
The capital market is the market for securities where companies and governments can increase long term funds. Selling stock and selling bonds are two ways to produce capital and long term funds. Thus bond markets and stock markets are measured capital markets. The capital markets consist of the primary market where new issues are spread to investors and the secondary market where accessible securities are traded. The Indian Equity Markets and the Indian Debt markets mutually form the Indian Capital markets
The Indian Equity Market depends largely on monsoons, global funds flowing into equities and the performance of various companies. The Indian Equity Market is almost wholly dominated by two major stock exchanges -National Stock Exchange of India Ltd. (NSE) and The Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE). The benchmark indices of the two exchanges - Nifty of NSE and Sensex of BSE are closely followed. The two exchanges also have an F&O (Futures and options) section for trading in equity derivatives including the indices. The main players in the Indian Equity Market are Mutual Funds, Financial Institutions and FIIs instead of mainly Venture Capital Funds and Private Equity Funds.
Indian Equity Market at present is a profitable field for investors. Indian stocks are profitable not only for long and medium-term investors but also the position traders, short-term swing traders and also very short term intra-day traders. In India as on December 30 2007 market capitalization (BSE 500) at US$ 1638 billion was 150 per cent of GDP matching well with other rising economies and selected matured markets.
For a developing economy like India, debt markets are critical sources of capital funds. The debt market in India is amongst the major in Asia. It includes government securities, public sector activities, other government bodies, financial institutions, banks and companies.
The money market of India involves all monetary transactions. It is further divided under the following two categories.
A money market fund is a mutual fund that invests exclusively in money market instruments. Money market instruments are forms of debt that grown-up in less than one year and are very liquid. Treasury bills make up the bulk of the money market instruments. Securities in the money market are relatively risk-free.
Money market funds are generally the safest and most secure of mutual fund investments. The goal of a money-market fund is to preserve principal while yielding a modest return. Money-market mutual fund is similar to a high-yield bank account but is not completely risk free. When investing in a money-market fund notice should be paid to the interest rate that is being offered.
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