One has seen the latest smart phone or a laptop and the desire is to purchase it right now. Paucity of funds is a problem and one does not know what to do. Buy now spend later is the need of the hour. Credit is the name of the game. It is at this time that one remembers plastic money. A rectangular plastic card with a magnetic strip at the back and the name of the owner printed on the card famously called a credit card. With this card in ones hands all one’s wants can be fulfilled. Time to shop?
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A credit card gives you an opportunity to buy now and pay later. Credit cards are issued by banks and NBFCs and allow you to make purchases on credit. (This is buy now and pay later), up to a set amount called pre-defined credit limit.
Credit cards have different features and benefits. The common credit cards around are fuel credit cards, cash back credit cards, balance transfer cards, entertainment credit cards, travel credit cards, women credit cards, business credit cards, hotel credit cards, rewards credit cards, EMV chip cards, No foreign transaction fees, travel and airline cards, low interest credit cards, entertainment credit cards among others. The most popular credit cards around are the free credit cards which don’t have joining and annual fees.
A credit card enables one to borrow money from the issuer of the card mainly a bank. One pays for a product or a service using the banks money and has to repay these amounts over a period of time. Since the bank pays the amount one does not have to pay right away and can purchase an item even if he has no immediate cash. One has to pay for the use of the banks money which is basically someone else’s money by repaying the amount with interest after a period of time just as in a loan. The bank sets a credit limit which is a maximum amount one can spend on the card. This could be 2-3 times ones monthly salary .It could also depend on the number of loans one is servicing which might impact the credit score. It mainly depends on the debt burden ratio which is the sum total of all EMI’s being serviced divided by the monthly gross salary. One obtains a statement on a monthly basis which lists the number of transactions made as well as the amounts paid using the card .One can pay by submitting the credit card at the cashier and the account is validated by the merchant with the bank .If all conditions are satisfied with the bank such as one is within the credit limit then the transaction is processed and added to one’s credit account. In order to accept credit cards the merchant has to pay a fee to the banks and the bank which issues the credit card collects these amounts as revenue.
There are 3 quick ways of applying for a credit card at the bank:
Credit cards have a billing cycle. It is the time period between bills. Billing cycle has a time period of 25-40 days. Let’s say the credit card generates the credit card bill on the 9th of each month. The bill you get on the 9th contains expenses of the previous month. Purchases made after the 9th are added to the next billing cycle.
Grace period: This is the time between the end date of billing cycle and the bill due date.
The bank assigns a credit limit based on credit
Credit card interest rates: Credit card charges interest of 12-24% a year.
A billing cycle normally consists of 30 days within which all purchases and repayments are accounted for and billed. An additional 25 days may be added to the billing cycle which constitutes the grace period. If one repays the total outstanding amount within this time period no interest is charged. If the amount is not repaid or a portion of it is not repaid within this time period it becomes an amount outstanding. One of the common tricks used by salesmen is to tell first time credit card users that they have 40-50 days to repay the amount on their credit card .All cards have a fixed due date by which all payments need to be made . If a purchase is made just 15 days before this due date ,the time left to make the repayment is the credit cards fixed due date and the credit card user has only 15 days to make his repayment.
The idea of using a credit card is all about the grace period. One would not be charged interest during this period. It is advocated that the least one can do is make the minimum payments on the credit card instead of the full amount. The problem with this approach is that the outstanding amount increases until it becomes a severe burden on oneself and his family. This pulls one in a debt trap. If one were to default on the repayments his credit score would be badly affected. Cibil a credit rating agency monitors one’s credit card usage and assigns a score on a scale between 300-900.Too many cards or a consistent late payment might affect this score. One would find it very difficult to avail a car or a home loan if the credit score is poor .When one falls into a debt trap it is not easy to recover. The never ending cycle continues and one can find it very difficult to escape from this vicious circle .Balance transfer is an option which can be explored in order to escape from this cycle of debt.
In a balance transfer one gets a new credit card from another bank. The debts on one’s existing credit card can be transferred to the new credit card. One can opt for a fixed duration or the lifetime duration balance transfer. The fixed duration offer is open only for a limited time period of about a year. All one’s dues must be settled within this time period. A lower rate of interest is charged which might be around 8-9% per annum compared to the higher 30-40% per annum rate of interest charged at the standard rates. However one cannot miss a payment within this tenure as then interest would be charged at the standard rates. One also has the lifetime renewability option where the dues can be paid across one’s lifetime. The interest rates are higher than the fixed duration balance transfer and are as high as 12-20%.A processing fee of around 2% of the outstanding amount is charged depending mainly on the bank. The bank in which the balance transfer in being exercised asks for the details of the old credit card which was issued by the previous bank. After the details have been verified by the new bank they will issue a cheque or a demand draft. This cheque or demand draft will be delivered directly to the customers address or to his bank.
One can opt for the conversion of the outstanding amount into equated monthly installments in order to repay the debt. Banks offer the EMI facility where the outstanding amount is paid off in parts. If one has to pay off an outstanding amount of INR 9000 then this amount can be divided into equated monthly installments .A banks existing customer can avail of this facility and benefit from lower interest rates of around 2% per month instead of 3-4% per month charged under standard conditions on one’s credit card dues. This method can be used when one does not want to go through complicated documentation for a balance transfer.
In case one misses the due date on his credit card payments banks would charge interest rates as high as 30-40% per annum on the outstanding amounts. The idea is to replace costly debt with cheaper debt .One can take a personal loan ,a gold loan or even a loan against property and retire the debt on the credit card. These loans have a lower interest rate and suffice as a suitable alternative. A personal loan can be availed at an interest rate of around 14-22% which is cheaper than the interest rate charged on a credit card. One should always opt for a secured loan rather than an unsecured loan as interest rates are lower and secured loans have a positive impact on ones credit score .Banks charge as less as 13-15% for a loan secured against gold .A loan against property can have an interest rate as less as 12-16%.Ones bank would be very happy to sanction a personal loan or a secured loan. However a default on the personal loan can affect one’s credit score.
Negotiating with one’s bank for a lower rate is certainly an option which should be considered. With serious competition between banks in this sector as well as the balance transfer option being available to the customer banks do compromise by lowering the interest rates .Banks would rather prefer charging a lower interest rate than a customer loan default which would add to its non performing assets.
I would like to end this article with the statement that a credit card in the wrong hands can be a weapon of destruction. It is akin to giving a monkey a sword. One must use this financial instrument wisely and only in an emergency .Always distinguish between a need and a want.
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