The BSE Sensex or Bombay Stock Exchange Sensitive Index is a value-weighted index composed of 30 stocks with the base value of 100 started on April 1979. It consists of the 30 largest and most actively traded stocks, representative of various sectors, on the Bombay Stock Exchange. These companies account for around one-fifth of the market capitalization of the BSE.
The base value of the Sensex is 100 on April 1, 1979 and the base year of BSE-SENSEX is 1978-79.
At irregular intervals, the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) authorities review and modify its composition to make sure it reflects current market conditions.
The index has increased by over 200 times from April 1979 to today. Using information from April 1979 onwards, the long-run rate of return on the BSE Sensex works out to be 18% per annum, which translates to roughly 9% per annum after compensating for inflation.
SENSEX is raising consistently from the day it started though there were many crashes and scandals affected the performance in many stages. SENSEX has got a long history and of course a great success story behind it. Here is the brief information about the various milestones SENSEX has created:
1000, July 25, 1990
On July 25, 1990, the Sensex touched the four-digit figure for the first time and closed at 1,001 in the wake of a good monsoon and excellent corporate results.
2000, January 15, 1992
On January 15, 1992, the Sensex crossed the 2,000-mark and closed at 2,020 followed by the liberal economic policy initiatives undertaken by the then finance minister and current Prime Minister Dr Manmohan Singh.
3000, February 29, 1992
On February 29, 1992, the Sensex surged past the 3000 mark in the wake of the market-friendly Budget announced by the then Finance Minister, Dr Manmohan Singh.
4000, March 30, 1992
On March 30, 1992, the Sensex crossed the 4,000-mark and closed at 4,091 on the expectations of a liberal export-import policy. It was then that the Harshad Mehta scam hit the markets and Sensex witnessed unabated selling.
5000, October 11, 1999
On October 8, 1999, the Sensex crossed the 5,000-mark as the BJP-led coalition won the majority in the 13th Lok Sabha election.
6000, February 11, 2000
On February 11, 2000, the infotech boom helped the Sensex to cross the 6,000-mark and hit and all time high of 6,006.
7000, June 21, 2005
On June 20, 2005, the news of the settlement between the Ambani brothers boosted investor sentiments and the scrips of RIL, Reliance Energy, Reliance Capital and IPCL made huge gains. This helped the Sensex crossed 7,000 points for the first time.
8000, September 8, 2005
On September 8, 2005, the Bombay Stock Exchange's benchmark 30-share index -- the Sensex -- crossed the 8000 level following brisk buying by foreign and domestic funds in early trading.
9000, December 09, 2005
The Sensex on November 28, 2005 crossed 9000 to touch 9000.32 points during mid-session at the Bombay Stock Exchange on the back of frantic buying spree by foreign institutional investors and well supported by local operators as well as retail investors.
10,000, February 7, 2006
The Sensex on February 6, 2006 touched 10,003 points during mid-session. The Sensex finally closed above the 10K-mark on February 7, 2006.
11,000, March 27, 2006
The Sensex on March 21, 2006 crossed 11,000 and touched a peak of 11,001 points during mid-session at the Bombay Stock Exchange for the first time. However, it was on March 27, 2006 that the Sensex first closed at over 11,000 points.
12,000, April 20, 2006
The Sensex on April 20, 2006 crossed 12,000 and touched a peak of 12,004 points during mid-session at the Bombay Stock Exchange for the first time.
13,000, October 30, 2006
The Sensex on October 30, 2006 crossed 13,000 and still riding high at the Bombay Stock Exchange for the first time. It took 135 days to reach 13,000 from 12,000. And it took 124 days to reach 13,000 from 12,500. On 30th October 2006 it touched a peak of 13,039.36 & closed at 13,024.26.
14,000, December 5, 2006
The Sensex on December 5, 2006 crossed 14,000 and touched a peak of 14028 at 9.58AM (IST) while opening for the day December 5, 2006.
15,000, July 6, 2007
The Sensex on July 6, 2007 crossed another milestone and reached a magic figure of 15,000. it took almost 7 month and 1 day to touch such a historic milestone.
16,000, September 19, 2007
The Sensex on September 19, 2007 crossed the 16,000 mark and reached a historic peak of 16322 while closing. The bull hits because of the rate cut of 50 bps in the discount rate by the Fed chief Ben Bernanke in US.
17,000, September 26, 2007
The Sensex on September 26, 2007 crossed the 17,000 mark for the first time, creating a record for the second fastest 1000 point gain in just 5 trading sessions. It failed however to sustain the momentum and closed below 17000. The Sensex closed above 17000 for the first time on the following day. Reliance group has been the main contributor in this Bull Run, contributing 256 points. This also helped Mukesh Ambani's net worth to grow to over $50 billion or Rs.2 trillion. It was also during this record bull run that the Sensex for the first time zoomed ahead of the Nikkei of Japan.
18,000, October 9, 2007
The Sensex crossed the 18k mark for the first time on October 9, 2007. The journey from 17k to 18k took just 8 trading sessions which is the third fastest 1000 point rise in the history of the sensex. The sensex closed at 18,280 at the end of day. This 788 point gain on 9th October was the second biggest single day absolute gains. Sensex also saw intra-day gains of 1000 points from the day's lows in the backdrop of political uncertainty between the UPA and Left parties on the Nuke deal. The markets started coming off the day's lows on news that the immediate threat to the government had receded after the warring factions agreed to talk further. Reliance Industries was again the biggest contributor in this 1000 point gain. The Reliance-pack along with Infosys and L&T lead the bull run.
19,000, October 15, 2007
The Sensex crossed the 19k mark for the first time on October 15th 2007.It took just 4 days to reach from 18k to 19k. This is the fastest 1000 points rally ever and also the 640 point rally was the second highest single day rally in absolute terms. RIL contributed 153 pts, ICICI Bank 120 pts, ONGC 119 pts, L&T 108 pts and Bharti Airtel 96 pts. Top 5 stocks contributed 60% of rally from 18k to 19k. That means a record 3000 point rally in 17 trading sessions.
20,000, October 29, 2007
The Sensex crossed the 20k mark for the first time with a massive 734.5 point gain but closed below the 20k mark. It took 11 days to reach from 19k to 20k. The journey of the last 10,000 points was covered in just 869 sessions as against 7,297 sessions taken to touch the 10,000 mark from 1,000 levels. In 2007 alone, there have been six 1,000-point rallies for the Sensex. L&T and ICICI Bank top contributors with 50% contribution of last 1000 points rally. However these 11 days between 19k and 20k have also been the most volatile in the history of India's stock markets on account of the P-Notes (Participatory notes) crisis which involved the biggest intra-day crash as well as the biggest single day gain.
List of Companies in the SENSEX
As I mentioned above there are 30 in companies in the SENSEX. Here is the list of all 30 companies from different sectors as on 26th Dec 2007:
Ambuja Cements Ltd.
Bajaj Auto Ltd.
Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd.
Bharti Airtel Ltd.
Grasim Industries Ltd.
HDFC Bank Ltd.
Hindalco Industries Ltd.
Hindustan Unilever Ltd.
ICICI Bank Ltd.
Infosys Technologies Ltd.
Larsen & Toubro Limited
Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd.
Maruti Suzuki India Ltd.
Ranbaxy Laboratories Ltd.
Reliance Communications Limited
Reliance Energy Ltd.
Reliance Industries Ltd.
Satyam Computer Services Ltd.
State Bank of India
Tata Consultancy Services Limited
Tata Motors Ltd.
Tata Steel Ltd.