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MONEY MARKET Research Team | Updated On Friday, September 26,2014, 12:50 PM

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Money must be accepted as a unit of account and a means of exchange or payment, be durable, scarce, easily dividable and stable in value. Money that is on account of the Central Bank is the Real Money. All other forms for e.g. the account balances with Commercial Banks even cash (check out the note by the RBI governor on Indian currency note) are promises to pay money but not real money. Like individuals Banks and large institutions also transact amongst each other lending and borrowing huge amounts of money. In these transactions cash is not involved, real money kept in accounts with the Central Bank will be transacted.

E.g.: IDBI Bank needs to pay SBI Rs.10 Crores balancing figure at the end of the day. This transaction happens by requesting RBI to increase the account balance of SBI by 10 Crores and corresponding decrease in the account balance of IDBI. Now with this the balances or total money with IDBI reduces. But it might be requiring that money for transactions with its other customers. This means a party (IDBI) which wants to borrow money now. There might be another institution that might be having surplus money that it does not require in the near future, say ICICI Bank having surplus money for 15 days (the same duration that IDBI wants it for). So we have ICICI loaning IDBI Rs.10 Crores for 15 days at an agreed rate. This is a Money Market transaction.

Particularly Money Market provides short-term finance (for a period less than 1 year.) The parties involved in Money Markets are Central Bank, Commercial Banks, Financial Institutions, Mutual Funds and Primary Dealers. The extension of Money Market is Capital Market where finance is transacted for a period longer than 1 year, in form of both Debt & Equity. Money Markets exist because of the main need of Working Capital Management where balance between Liquidity and Profitability is vital.

The market provides a medium for Cash surplus and deficient organizations to manage and reach an equilibrium regarding the cost of funds (interest rates.) The borrowing and lending in money markets is high volume, Low risk and short-term. As it is short-term transaction costs are high relative to the interest that can be earned. And transaction costs are high relative to the interest that can be earned, dealings in the money market lean to be for very large amounts. Short-term is generally understood as less than one year, even though, in fact most money market activity is concentrated in terms to maturity between overnight and one-week.

Indian Money Market

The money market is an instrument that deals with the lending and borrowing of short term finances. The India Money Market has come of age in the past two decades. In order to learn the money market of India in detail, we first need to know the parameters about which the money market in India revolves.

The show of the Indian Money Market is greatly dependent on real interest rate that is the interest rate that is inflation adjusted. Though the money market is free from interest rate ceilings, structural barriers and other institutional factors can be detained accountable for creating distortions in India Money Market. Apart from the call market rates the other interest rates in the Indian Money Market usually do not change in the short run. It is due to this difference between the opposite forces that is common in the money market in India that a well distinct income path cannot be traced.

Due to the deregulation of the interest rate in the early nineties following the economic reforms laid down by the finance minister Dr. Manmohan Singh, a study concerning the behavior of interest rate was restricted. However the liquidity of the market makes it’s a good subject for experiential research.

The Indian Money Market involves a broad variety of instruments. Here, maturities range from one day to a year issued by banks and corporates of various sizes. The money market is also closely connected with the Foreign Exchange Market throughout the procedure of covered interest arbitrage in which the forward premium acts as a connection between domestic and foreign interest rates.

To examine the interest rates that characterize the Indian Money Market the following fundamentals need to be covered :

  • The term structure of interest rate.
  • The difference between domestic and international interest rates
  • The market arrangement differences between the auction markets that clear continuously and the Customer markets.
  • The credit speed between instruments connecting similar maturity but diverse risk factor.

Money Market Instruments

Money market borrowing and lending utilizes a variety of different instruments. These include :

  • Deposits and loans,
  • Repurchase agreements, and number of securitized debt instruments
  • Treasury bills
  • Bankers’ acceptances
  • Commercial paper (CP)
  • Certificates of deposit (CD)

Borrowers in money markets are all high superiority names and so the securities issued and traded have low risk, low yield, high liquidity characteristics which are attractive to risk reluctant lenders In terms of risk Profiles: Treasury Bills, Banker’s Acceptances, CD and CPs range from the lowest to highest risk in that order being governed by the credit worthiness of party backing it. As a result the returns are in inverse order for these instruments. Normal issues of Treasury bills backed by central government have the lowest default risk, creating the deepest market segment of homogeneous, highly liquid paper - with consequently the lowest yield. This is because governments’ are usually assumed to have a very low default risk.

Bankers' Acceptances are also very safe investments as they carry the responsibility to honor payment by both a corporate and a bank and in addition, because they generally represent a business deal with specific fundamental goods. Certificates of Deposit, honored by a single bank, normally trade a few basis points higher but this can only be a generalization as the market section is itself tiered, the variety of names issuing resulting in different credit and liquidity premiums.

The profitable Paper section presents the greatest degree of tiering. Major grade CP normally trades a few base points over CDs, but again some corporates are perceived as being more creditworthy than some banks. Medium grade CP offers the highest yields to attract investors.

Repurchase agreement (REPO)

A repurchase (repo) agreement can be seen as a short term swap among cash and securities. Repurchase agreements or repos are specialized but important aspects of many markets, particularly those for government securities. In essence if a security holder wants to maintain his or her long-term position but needs cash for a short period, he or she can go into a repo agreement whereby the securities are sold together with a required agreement to repurchase them at a future date regularly fairly near-term. The result is to provide the security holder with a short-term loan based on the collateral of the government securities he or she owns. In main markets with repo systems, it is a cheap, simple and effective way to raise short-term funds.

For banks and large corporates, liquidity management is about receiving a fine return on cash, which they may need at short notice. They do this by borrowing and lending among each other - using either money market securities or deposits and loans - in the interbank market.

When does a bank participate in Money Market

Banks will participate in the money market in the following cases.

Take Debt

  • When they fall short of statutory Reserve necessities may be due to a change in rates or next 2 points.
  • When they fall short of funds to meet withdrawal necessities from customers.
  • When they fall short of funds to lend at more attractive rates

Loan Debt

When they have surplus idle funds.

Major Players in money market

The major players and their main role in the money market is listed below :



Central Bank






Discount Houses

Market markets











Can individual investors invest in Money markets?

One of the main differences among the money market and the stock market is that the majority money market securities trade in very high denominations and so individual investors has partial entrance to them. The easiest way for individual investors to increase entrée to the money market is with a money market mutual fund or sometimes a money market bank account. These accounts and funds pool jointly the assets of thousands of investors and buy the money market securities on their behalf. Even though some money market instruments like treasury bills may be purchased directly or through other large financial institutions with straight access to these markets. In summary Money markets are markets for financing the short term fund necessities of Government, Banks, Corporate and other Financial Institutions. Like any other markets there are intermediaries like Dealers who make dealings possible and easy for these participants. The instruments in the market are to a great amount governed by Central Bank’s policies regarding supply of money therefore inflation in the economy and the rates of interest. The well-organized process of the markets is very critical for any developed economy to enable the large institutions get easy access to cheap funds, therefore enabling them maintain the important balance between profitability and liquidity.


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