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Types Of Debt Instruments Research Team | Posted On Monday, June 29,2009, 10:14 PM

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Types Of Debt Instruments



Debt Instruments are obligation of issuer of such instrument as regards certain future cash flow representing Interest & Principal, which the issuer would pay to the legal owner of the Instrument. Types of Debt Instruments are of different types like Bonds, Debentures, Commercial Papers, Certificates of Deposit, Government Securities (G - Secs) etc. The Government Securities (G-Secs) market is the oldest and the largest element of the Indian debt market in terms of market capitalization, trading volumes and outstanding securities. The G-Secs market plays a very important role in the Indian economy as it provides the benchmark for determining the level of interest rates in the country through the yields on the government securities which are treated as the risk-free rate of return in any economy.

The reserve Bank of India has allowed Primary Dealers, Banks and Financial Institutions in India to do transactions in debt instruments among themselves or with non-bank clients. Debt instruments provide fixed return known as coupon rate. Retail investors would have a natural preference for fixed income returns and especially so in the present situation of increasing volatility in the financial markets. Now, retail investors are also showing keen interest in Debt Instruments particularly in the Central Government Securities (G-secs).For an individual investor G-secs are one of the best investment options as there is zero default risk and lower volatility.

There are different types of Debt Instruments available in India such as;

Below given are the important debt instruments available in india

Invest In Bonds

A Bond is simply an 'IOU' in which an investor agrees to lend money to a company or government in exchange for a predetermined interest rate. If a business wants to expand, one of its options is to borrow money from individual investors. The company issues bonds at different interest rates and sells them to the public. Investors purchase them with the understanding that the company will pay back their original principal with some interest that is due by a set date (this is known as the "maturity"). The interest a bondholder earns depends on the strength of the corporation.

For example, a blue chip is more stable and has a lower risk of defaulting on its debt. Sometimes some big companies issue bonds and they may only pay 7% interest, but some other small companies may pay you 10%. A general rule of thumb when investing in bonds is that "the higher the interest rate, the riskier the bond."

Following are allowed to issue bonds

  • Government Bonds
  • Municipal Bonds
  • Institutions Bonds
  • Corporate Bonds

There are many types of bonds, each having diverse features and characteristics. Bonds and stocks are both securities, but the major difference between the two is that stockholders have an equity stake in the company (i.e., they are owners), whereas bondholders have a creditor stake in the company (i.e., they are lenders). Another difference is that bonds usually have a defined term, or maturity, after which the bond is redeemed, whereas stocks may be outstanding indefinitely.

Bonds Returns

Returns is depends on the nature of the bonds that have been purchased by the investor. Bonds may be secured or unsecured. Firstly, always check up the credit rating of the issuing company before purchasing the bond. This gives you a working knowledge of the company's financial health and an idea about the risk considerations of the instrument itself. Interest payments depend on the health and credit rating of the issuer. Therefore, it is essential to check the credit rating and financial health of the issuer before loosening up the bond. If you do invest in bonds issued by the top-rated Corporates, there is no guarantee that you will receive your payments on time.

Risks In Bonds

In certain cases, the issuer has a call option mentioned in the prospectus. This means that after a certain period, the issuer has the choice of redeeming the bonds before their maturity. In that case, while you will receive your principal and the interest accrued till that date, you might lose out on the interest that would have accrued on your sum in the future had the bond not been redeemed. Always remember that if interest rates go up, bond prices go down and vice-versa.

Buying and Holding of Bonds

Investors can subscribe to primary issues of Corporates and Financial Institutions (FIs). It is common practice for FIs and corporates to raise funds for asset financing or capital expenditure through primary bond issues. Some bonds are also available in the secondary market. The minimum investment for bonds can either be Rs 5,000 or Rs 10,000. However, this amount varies from issue to issue. There is no prescribed upper limit to your investment. The duration of a bond issue usually varies between 5 and 7 years.

Selling of Bonds

Selling bonds in the secondary market has its own drawbacks. First, there is a liquidity problem which means that it is a tough job to find a buyer. Second, even if you find a buyer, the prices may be at a sharp discount to its intrinsic value. Third, you are subject to market forces and, hence, market risk. If interest rates are running high, bond prices will be down and you may well end up incurring losses. On the other hand, Debentures are always secured.

Bond Market Liquidity

Selling in the debt market is an obvious option. Some issues also offer Put and Call option.

  • In Put option, the investor has the option to approach the issuing entity after a specified period (say, three years), and sell back the bond to the issuer.
  • In Call option, the company has the right to recall its debt obligation after a particular time frame.

What Are Debentures?

A debenture is similar to a bond except the securitization conditions are different. A debenture is generally unsecured in the sense that there are no liens or pledges on specific assets. It is defined as a certificate of agreement of loans which is given under the company's stamp and carries an undertaking that the debenture holder will get a fixed return (fixed on the basis of interest rates) and the principal amount whenever the debenture matures.

In finance, a debenture is a long-term debt instrument used by governments and large companies to obtain funds. The advantage of debentures to the issuer is they leave specific assets burden free, and thereby leave them open for subsequent financing. Debentures are generally freely transferrable by the debenture holder. Debenture holders have no voting rights and the interest given to them is a charge against profit.

See Also: Types Of Debentures

Debentures vs Bonds

Debentures and bonds are similar except for one difference bonds are more secure than debentures. In case of both, you are paid a guaranteed interest that does not change in value irrespective of the fortunes of the company. However, bonds are more secure than debentures, but carry a lower interest rate. The company provides collateral for the loan. Moreover, in case of liquidation, bondholders will be paid off before debenture holders.

A debenture is more secure than a stock, but not as secure as a bond. In case of bankruptcy, you have no collateral you can claim from the company. To compensate for this, companies pay higher interest rates to debenture holders. All investment, including stocks bonds or debentures carry an element of risk.

See Also: How to invest in stocks?

Commercial Papers

Commercial Paper (CP) is an unsecured money market instrument issued in the form of a promissory note. It was introduced in India in 1990 with a view to enable highly rated corporate borrowers/ to diversify their sources of short-term borrowings and to provide an additional instrument to investors. Subsequently, primary dealers and satellite dealers were also permitted to issue CP to enable them to meet their short-term funding requirements for their operations. CP can be issued in denominations of Rs.5 lakh or multiples thereof. Amount invested by a single investor should not be less than Rs.5 lakh (face value). It will be issued foe a duration of 30/45/60/90/120/180/270/364 days. Only a scheduled bank can act as an Issuing and Paying Agent IPA for issuance of CP.

Features of Commercial Papers

Following are the important features of commercial papers

  • They are unsecured debts of corporates and are issued in the form of promissory notes, redeemable at par to the holder at maturity.
  • Only corporates who get an investment grade rating can issue CPs, as per RBI rules.
  • It is issued at a discount to face value
  • Attracts issuance stamp duty in primary issue
  • Has to be mandatorily rated by one of the credit rating agencies
  • It is issued as per RBI guidelines
  • It is held in Demat form
  • CP can be issued in denominations of Rs.5 lakh or multiples thereof. Amount invested by a single investor should not be less than Rs.5 lakh (face value).
  • Issued at discount to face value as may be determined by the issuer.
  • Bank and FI’s are prohibited from issuance and underwriting of CP’s.
  • Can be issued for a maturity for a minimum of 15 days and a maximum upto one year from the date of issue.

Who can Issue Commercial Papers?

  • Corporates and primary dealers (PDs)
  • All-India financial institutions (FIs)

CP Maturity

CP can be issued for maturities between a minimum of 7 days and a maximum up to one year from the date of issue.

Invest in CP Market

CP may be issued to and held by individuals, banking companies, other corporate bodies registered or incorporated in India and unincorporated bodies, Non-Resident Indians (NRIs) and Foreign Institutional Investors (FIIs). However, investment by FIIs would be within the limits set for their investments by Securities and Exchange Board of India. Banks still continue to be a major player in the CP market.

Issuance of Shares

CP can be issued either in the form of a promissory note or in a dematerialized form through any of the depositories approved by and registered with SEBI. CP will be issued at a discount to face value as may be determined by the issuer. No issuer shall have the issue of CP underwritten or co-accepted.

See also: How Shares are Issued in the Primary Market?

CP Issue Expenses

Stamp duty

0.2% - If placed through banks
1.0% - If placed through merchant bankers

Rating fees*

0.10% (subject to a minimum of Rs.100,000)
(for a rating from CARE)

Issuing and paying agent fee


(All charges are on per annum basis and are subject to changes from time to time)

CP is issued at a discount to the face value. The following costs are involved in the issue of CP:

*CARE charges a rating fee of 0.10% of the amount of issue subject to a minimum of Rs.100,000 and a maximum of Rs.30,00,000. For issues above Rs.500 crore, the maximum fee would be Rs.40 lakh

Certificate of Deposit

A certificate of deposit or CD is a time deposit, a financial product commonly offered to consumers by banks, thrift institutions, and credit unions. CDs are similar to savings accounts in that they are insured and thus virtually risk-free; they are "money in the bank". They are different from savings accounts in that the CD has a specific, fixed term (often 3 months, 6 months, or 1 to 5 years), and, usually, a fixed interest rate. It is intended that the CD be held until maturity, at which time the money may be withdrawn together with the accrued interest.

Certificate of Deposit Eligibility

  • Scheduled commercial banks excluding Regional Rural Banks (RRBs) andLocal Area Banks
  • All-India Financial Institutions that have been permitted by RBI to raise short-term resources within the umbrella limit fixed by RBI.

CDs can be issued to individuals, corporations, companies, trusts, funds, associations, etc. Non- Resident Indians (NRIs) may also subscribe to CDs, but only on non-repatriable basis which should be clearly stated on the Certificate. Such CDs cannot be endorsed to another NRI in the secondary market.

Maturity Period Of Certificate Of Deposit

  • The maturity period of CDs issued by banks should be not less than 7 days and not more than one year.
  • The FIs can issue CDs for a period not less than 1 year and not exceeding 3 years from the date of issue.

CDs may be issued at a discount on face value. Banks/FIs are also allowed to issue CDs on floating rate basis provided the methodology of compiling the floating rate is objective, transparent and market-based. The issuing bank/FI is free to determine the discount/coupon rate. The interest rate on floating rate CDs would have to be reset periodically in accordance with a pre-determined formula that indicates the spread over a transparent benchmark.

Cash Reserve Ratio

Banks have to maintain the appropriate reserve requirements, i.e., cash reserve ratio (CRR) and statutory liquidity ratio (SLR), on the issue price of the CDs.

Transferable Certificate Of Deposit

Physical CDs are freely transferable by endorsement and delivery. Dematted CDs can be transferred as per the procedure applicable to other demat securities. There is no lock-in period for the CDs.

Buyback Loans

Banks/FIs cannot grant loans against CDs. Furthermore, they cannot buy-back their own CDs before maturity.

Invest In Fixed Deposits (FDs)

A fixed deposit account allows you to deposit your money for a set period of time, thereby earning you a higher rate of interest in return. Fixed deposits also give you a higher rate of interest than a savings bank account. Any investment portfolio should comprise the right mix of safe, moderate and risky investments. While mutual funds and stocks are the preferred contenders for moderate and risky investments, fixed deposits, government bonds etc. are considered safe investments. Fixed deposits have been particularly popular among a large section of investors in India as a safe investment option for a long period. With fixed deposits or FDs as they are popularly known, a person can invest an amount for a fixed duration. The banks give interest rates depending on this loan amount and the tenure of deposit.

Benefits of FD

Bellow given are the important benefits of FDs

Fixed Deposit Safety

The fixed deposits of reputed banks and financial institutions regulated by Reserve Bank of India, the banking regulator in India are very secure and considered as one of the safest investment methods.

Regular Income

Fixed deposits earn fixed interest rates for their entire term, which is usually compounded quarterly. So, those who want an income on a regular basis can invest into fixed deposits and use the interest rate as their income. This makes a fixed deposit very accepted way of investing money for retirees.

Fixed Deposit Tax Saving

With the directives of the income tax department stating that investment in fixed deposits up to a maximum of Rs.100,000 for 5 years are eligible for tax deductions under section 80C of income tax act, fixed deposits have again become popular. Fixed deposits save tax and give high returns on invested money.

Fixed Deposit Disadvantages

Bellow given are the disadvantages of FDs

FD Returns

While the money invested in stock markets may give you a return of 20% the fixed deposits will yield only about 10%. So, the money grows slowly in the case of fixed deposits.

FD Tax Savings

The interest earned on fixed deposits is fully taxable (except Tax saving Schemes) and is added to the annual income of the individual. Gains from stocks are considered capital gains while dividends are tax free.

Effect of Inflation on Fixed Deposit

Rising inflation can wipe out the interest benefits. The actual benefits or income from fixed deposit can be annulled by a rising inflation. Suppose the inflation which is currently at 3 % rises to about 6%, your fixed deposit at 10% annual return will effectively yield only(10%-6%) = 4% of return. This return would have been (10% -3%) = 7% if the rate of inflation had not changed. This can drastically eat into your fixed deposit income.

What is the minimum amount I can deposit in FD?

The minimum deposit amount is Rs. 1,000/- Deposits can be made in multiples of Rs. 100/-. While all efforts have been made to update the information, constituents are requested to contact the branches for latest details.

Government Securities In India

Government securities (G-secs) are supreme securities which are issued by the Reserve Bank of India on behalf of Government of India in lieu of the Central Government's market borrowing program.

The term Government Securities includes :

  • Central Government Securities.
  • State Government Securities
  • Treasury bills

The Central Government borrows funds to finance its 'fiscal deficit'. The market borrowing of the Central Government is increased through the issue of dated securities and 364 days treasury bills either by auction or by floatation of loans. In addition to the above, treasury bills of 91 days are issued for managing the temporary cash mismatches of the Government. These do not form part of the borrowing program of the Central Government.

See Also: Why Invest in Government Securities in India?

Features of Government Securities

  • Issued at face value
  • No default risk as the securities carry sovereign guarantee.
  • Ample liquidity as the investor can sell the security in the secondary market
  • Interest payment on a half yearly basis on face value
  • No tax deducted at source
  • Can be held in D-mat form.
  • Redeemed at face value on maturity
  • Maturity ranges from of 2-30 years.
  • Securities qualify as SLR investments (unless otherwise stated).

Benefits of Investing in Government Securities

  • No tax deducted at source
  • Additional Income Tax benefit u/s 80L of the Income Tax Act for Individuals
  • Qualifies for SLR purpose
  • Zero default risk being sovereign paper
  • Highly liquid.
  • Transparency in transactions and simplified settlement procedures through CSGL/NSDL.

National Savings Certificate

National Savings Certificate (NSC) is a fixed interest, long term instrument for investment. NSCs are issued by the Department of Post, Government of India. Since they are backed by the Government of India, NSCs are a practically risk free avenue of investment. They can be bought from authorized post offices. NSCs have a maturity of 6 years. They offer a rate of return of 8% per annum. This interest is calculated every six months, and is merged with the principal. That is, the interest is reinvested, and is paid along with the principal at the time of maturity. For every Rs. 100 invested, you receive Rs. 160.10 at maturity.

NSCs qualify for investment under Section 80C of the Income Tax Act (IT Act). Even the interest earned every year qualifies under Sec 80C. This means that investments in NSCs and the interest earned on it every year, upto Rs. 1 Lakh, are deductible from the income of the investor. There is no tax deducted at source (TDS).

NSC Features

  • Minimum investment Rs. 500/- No maximum limit.
  • Rate of interest 8% compounded half yearly.
  • Rs. 1000/- grow to Rs. 1601/- in six years.

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